Orthopedic in India

This branch of medicine deals with the musculoskeletal conditions. Orthopedic surgeons treat a number of conditions that affect the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. India has a number of specialist orthopedic surgeons who have left their mark all across the world. There are many super speciality hospitals across India that offers modern treatments in the area of Orthopedics. Given below are some of the major orthopedic treatments offered in India.

Orthopedic Procedures include:

Knee Replacement

Knee replacement, Arthroplasty or Computer Assisted Surgery for Joint Replacement (CASJR) is a surgical procedure to replace a damaged knee with a prosthesis (an artificial joint). This surgery may be considered for someone who has severe arthritis or a severe knee injury.

The most common cause of chronic knee pain and disability is arthritis. Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and traumatic arthritis are the most common forms.

Total Knee Replacement is considered in the following conditions:

  • Severe daily pain
  • Pain is severe enough to restrict work, recreation and daily living
  • Significant stiffness of the knee
  • Significant instability of the knee
  • Deformity of the knee (lock-knees or bowlegs)

Total Hip Replacement / Partial Hip Replacement

A Total Hip Replacement (THR) - also called a Hip Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure that re-forms the hip-joint.

Osteoarthritis of the hip is the most common diagnosis that leads to hip replacement. Osteoarthritis is caused by wear and tear. It affects the cartilage surfaces of the ball-and-socket joint of the hip. The cartilage wears out. Pain and stiffness result. Patients with hip arthritis have difficulty walking, climbing stairs and performing routine daily activities. Other conditions that can cause destruction of the hip joint include:

  • Loss of blood supply to the head of the thighbone
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (an inflammatory autoimmune disease)
  • Previous injury or trauma
  • Infection
  • Developmental abnormalities in the hip

Bone Marrow Transplant

Major hospitals in India have oncology units comprising surgical oncology, medical and radiation there by as well as the crucial Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT). The BMT unit with high pressure hipa filers has helped achieve a very high success rate in the various types of transplantation.

What is bone marrow?

The bone marrow is a soft, spongy tissue found inside the bones. The bone marrow in the hips, breast bone, spine, ribs, and skull contain cells that produce the body's blood cells. The bone marrow is responsible for the development and storage of about 95 percent of the body's blood cells. The three main types of blood cells produced in the bone marrow include:

  • Red blood cells (Erythrocytes) - carry oxygen to the tissues in the body
  • White blood cells (Leukocytes) - help fight infections and to aid in the immune system
  • Platelets - help with blood clotting

Each of these cells carries a life-maintaining function. The bone marrow is a vital part of the human body.

Different types of bone marrow transplants

There are different types of bone marrow transplants depending on who the donor is. The different types of bone marrow transplant include the following:

Autologous bone marrow transplant

The donor is the child him/herself. Stem cells are taken from the child either by bone marrow harvest or apheresis (peripheral blood stem cells) and then given back to the child after intensive treatment. Often the term "rescue" is used instead of "transplant."

Allogeneic bone marrow transplant

The donor shares the same genetic type as the child. Stem cells are taken either by bone marrow harvest or apheresis (peripheral blood stem cells) from a genetically-matched donor, usually a brother or sister. Other donors for allogeneic bone marrow transplants include:

  • A parent - a haploid-identical match is when the donor is a parent and the genetic match is at least half identical to the recipient.
  • An identical twin - a syngeneic transplant is an allogeneic transplant from an identical twin. Identical twins are considered a complete genetic match for a marrow transplant.
  • Unrelated bone marrow transplants (UBMT or MUD for matched unrelated donor) - the genetically matched marrow or stem cells are from an unrelated donor. Unrelated donors are found through the national bone marrow registries.

Umbilical cord blood transplant

Stem cells are taken from an umbilical cord immediately after delivery of an infant. These stem cells reproduce into mature, functioning blood cells quicker and more effectively than do stem cells taken from the bone marrow of another child or adult. The stem cells are tested, typed, counted, and frozen until they are ready to be transplanted.

Because the stem cells are "new," they are able to produce more blood cells from each stem cell. Another advantage cord blood has is that the T-lymphocytes (part of the immune system that causes graft-versus-host disease) are not completely functional this early in the stage of life. Recipients of cord blood transplants have a decrease risk for severe graft-versus-host disease.